Bacterial meningitis journal articles


Additional studies using monoclonal antibodies against specific virulence factors and investigations into the production of inflammatory cytokines in response to bacterial Determination of the etiology of bacterial meningitis and estimating cost of disease are important in guiding vaccination policies. Although the United States and other developed countries have seen a decline in pediatric Over a 14-month period, 77 children with a presumptive diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis were investigated. Meningitis is brought on in light of virus, bacteria and fungi. However, permanent disabilities (such as brain damage, hearing loss, and learning disabilities) can result from the infection. 5, pp. Complement factor H (FH) is a complement regulatory protein inhibiting alternative pathway activation but is also exploited by the pneumococcus to prevent complement activation on Jun 01, 2012 · Acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: An evidence-based review Adarsh Bhimraj Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine Jun 2012, 79 (6) 393-400; DOI: 10. Methods: We performed a Childhood bacterial meningitis: Impact of age at illness and acute medical complications on long term outcome. 1 2 Severe neurological sequelae occur in up to 50% of survivors. e. . Considering our previously reported association between free MENINGITIS OVERVIEW. Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening condition that can affect all ages, but is most common in babies and children. Other causes Apr 16, 2020 · Severity of symptoms: A 2018 study in the Pakistan Journal of Medical Science reported the vast majority of children with meningitis-associated hearing loss had severe symptoms, including high fever, vomiting, and seizures. Bacterial meningitis is very serious and can be deadly. 29 Accordingly, the findings can probably be generalized also to patients with meningitis caused by other bacteria than pneumococci. Meningitis is mostly caused by viral infection but can also be caused by bacteria and fungi. Signs and symptoms. Chaudhuri, P. Several studies have evaluated dexamethasone for prevention of hearing loss in childhood bacterial meningitis, but results have varied. Abstract. Children aged 2 months to 16 years with meningitis were treated with ceftriaxone but were double-blindly randomly The timely diagnosis of bacterial meningitis is of utmost importance due to the need to institute antibiotic treatment as early as possible. This included 1438 cases of viral etiology, 888 of bacterial etiology (4). S. View Large Image; Download  1 Nov 2018 Abstract Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency. 20/$8 pays for a 30 minute call from a trained support officer. Related Journals: Clinical Infectious Diseases: Open Access, Journal of Infectious Diseases & Therapy , Emerging Infectious Diseases , Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases WITHOUT A DOUBT, bacterial meningitis in adults is a frightening diagnosis with an alarming mortality. Patients and Methods. Articles were included if the subjects were between the ages of 1 month and 18 years at the time of diagnoses of meningitis. The inflammation is most commonly caused by a virus or a bacterium, which travels from an infection in another part of the body through the bloodstream to the meninges. Acute bacterial meningitis in adults. 8 per 100,000 annually. In general, young children are at the highest risk of bacterial meningitis and septicaemia, but other age groups, including older people, can also be vulnerable to specific types. The objective of this study Dec 15, 2010 · In adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis, 25 percent have recent otitis or sinusitis, 12 percent have pneumonia, and16 percent are immunocompromised. Table 2 summarizes the most common CSF findings Objective: To evaluate cognitive outcome in adult survivors of bacterial meningitis. meningitidis was for a long time the main etiological agent causing bacterial meningitis [3, 5, 6, 13]. Dyas, and V. Lumbar puncture and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid may be done primarily to exclude bacterial meningitis, but identification of the specific viral cause is itself beneficial Introduction . Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency requiring immediate diagnosis and immediate treatment. 2Department of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, Medicine Hospital, University of Gaziantep, 27310 Gaziantep-Turkey. A variety of viruses can cause meningitis, including those that cause gastroenteritis, measles, mumps, chicken pox and herpes. Meningitis, inflammation of the meninges, the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. The causative organisms were isolated in 27 (54%) patients. In this article, we are reviewing the existing literature on this topic over Haemophilus inftuenzae was the most common cause of bacterial meningitis (45%), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (18%), and Neisseria meningitidis (14%). 38 per 100,000. Acute bacterial meningitis in adults: Predictors of outcome. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases: Vol. Several different bacteria can cause meningitis. More detail is in the main article. Meningitis is usually caused by a viral Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the membranes (meninges) surrounding brain and spinal cord. You May Like. 79gr. To this end, we performed a single-center retrospective cohort study of children from Sao Paulo, Brazil, with CSF pleocytosis to evaluate the ability of CSF lactate to distinguish between children with bacterial and aseptic meningitis. in an effort to In bacteremia the majority of bacterial species are killed by oxidation on the surface of erythrocytes and digested by local phagocytes in the liver and the spleen. £6/€7. The acute and long-term sequelae and their courses have been documented. inftuenzae meningitis varied significantlybyregion, from 1. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the  1, Etiologies and Outcome of Children with Purulent Meningitis at the Yaounde Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 5 For lesions invading or eroding into surrounding areas such as the sphenoid sinus, the resulting skull base defect and CSF leak can act as an entry portal for organisms such asStreptococcus pneumoniae predisposing to meningitis. Related Journals of Meningits EPIDEMIOLOGY AND VACCINATION. Jun 12, 2012 · Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency, and timely antibiotic therapy is critical. Eighty-five young infants aged Streptococcus (GBS) and Escherichia coli caused 74. The image below depicts acute bacterial meningitis. Clinical decision rules for acute bacterial meningitis: current insights Alain Viallon,1 Elisabeth Botelho-Nevers,2 Fabrice Zeni3 1Emergency Department, 2Department of Infectious Disease, 3Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital, Saint-Etienne, France Abstract: Acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis (BM) requires rapid diagnosis so that suitable treatment can be instituted within 60 Chandran A, Herbert H, Misurski D, Santosham M. It  Meningitis in the Western Pacific. Early antibiotic treatment is the most important measure to save Despite the availability of effective antibiotics, vaccination programmes and skilled acute-care facilities, there is still a significant mortality and morbidity from bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis is rare, but can be deadly. Date: August 20, 2018 Bacterial meningitis is an important cause of mortality and morbidity despite advances in antimicrobial therapy. Dexamethasone before antibiotics Dexamethasone 10mg IV 15 minutes before or with antibiotics (and dexamethasone Q6h x 4 days) in adults with confirmed bacterial meningitis led to a far greater probability of favorable neurological outcome, NNT = 10, and to a marked decrease in mortality, NNT = 13. Unilateral endogenous panophthalmitis was diagnosed with visual acuity hand movement at 1 meter and vitreous sample was obtained for Causative agents of bacterial meningitis. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc. Is Bacterial Meningitis Serious? Know the Symptoms of Meningitis · Article . 3,Pub. It is not common in Canada. First, the introduction of conjugate vaccines in Europe resulted in the virtual disappearance of Pediatric bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency requiring immediate initiation of treatment. In 2011 in Poland, it was recorded 2915 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis. 00 Read the latest articles of Journal of Infection at ScienceDirect. The impact of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB) conjugate vaccines on the epidemiology of the other bacterial causes of meningitis in childhood has received little attention. The incidence of acute bacterial meningitis was 0. Pan African Medical Journal (ISSN: 1937-8688). Martin, P. • To assess the implications of meningitis in a more mature population, we reviewed the records of patients with meningitis: 71 aged 50 years and older and 138 patients aged 15 to 49 years. 9 per 100,000, and occurs more often in the summer. Access full text Article. Niger J Clin  30 Nov 2017 Here are some facts about bacterial meningitis. Treatment is with antimicrobials and Viral meningitis is common and often goes unreported. Even with appropriate treatment, morbidity and mortality can be substantial. Transmission occurs through close contact, droplets, or direct contact with respiratory secretions. View Media Gallery. Meningitis can be caused by several viruses and bacteria. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar To evaluate the potential role of cachectin/TNF-alpha in the pathogenesis of bacterial and viral meningitis, concentrations and kinetics of TNF-alpha were determined in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). II. June J. 7, pp. Bacterial meningitis is a potentially catastrophic infectious disease associated with substantial mortality and a risk of permanent disability in survivors. A. Meningococcal meningitis is associated with high fatality (up to 50% when untreated) and high frequency (more than 10%) of severe sequelae. Mar 16, 2020 · Meningitis. Bacterial meningitis requires antibiotics, as opposed to enteroviral meningitis, which only requires supportive therapy. What follow-up of community-acquired bacterial meningitis patients should be provided (e. Regular seasonality (seasonal hyperendemicity) is observed for both meningococcal and pneumococcal meningitis and understanding this is critical for better prevention and modelling. Mustafa Sağlam1, Yasemin Zer1,2* and İclal Balci1 1Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Gaziantep, Faculty of Medicine. 7 Typical clinical features are Meningitis - bacterial meningitis and meningococcal disease: Summary. This review describes the changing epidemiology and considers some important recent observations that contribute to our understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of meningitis. Identifying the causative pathogen as quickly as possible is crucial to initiate the most optimal therapy, as acute bacterial meningitis is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. During the four years period from 1988 to 1991, 50 pediatric patients were diagnosed to have bacterial meningitis, out of a total number of 9057 pediatric admissions at Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif, Saudi Arabia, and 82% were less than two years of age. 1155/2012/320309 meningitis in children with cochlear implants,” The New England Journal of  Clinical features and prognostic factors in adults with bacterial meningitis. Read about symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. A case report of acute pediatric bacterial meningitis due to the rare isolate, Pseudomonas putida Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation is an open access journal, with focuses on neuroimmunology and neuroinflammation research, and coverage extending to other basic and clinical studies related to neuroscience. 3. Neisseria meningitidis is the most common cause of ABM in the meningitis belt (sub-Saharan Africa), and Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) are the most common causes in southern and eastern Africa (1–4). Toggle Thumbstrip. 3, pp. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of bacterial meningitis, the frequency of each pathogen, and its sensitivity to antibiotics and risk factors for death. Activation of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway (KP) has been reported in various neurological diseases as a consequence of inflammation. In the United States (U. 1% across studies) and were mostly neonates. The authors review 23 cases of hospital-acquired meningitis occurring over a 15-year period in neurosurgical patients. Of these children, 705 (49. 8-4. 8. Journal of Medical Microbiology — Recommend this title to your library meningitis. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the  PMC HomeJournal ListTher Adv Neurol Disordv. Blocking the complement system was shown to improve the outcome of experimental pneumococcal meningitis. Nov 05, 2018 · Meningitis is a term used to describe an inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain or the spinal cord. Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National  Further research should focus on the preventable aspects of ABM, especially pneumococcal and meningococcal Keywords: Bacterial meningitis in India, cerebrospinal fluid examination, cerebrospinal fluid latex How to cite this article : Article has an altmetric score of 3 Bacterial meningitis can be difficult to diagnose as the symptoms and signs are often non-specific, especially in young   31 Dec 2019 [2] Viral causes of meningitis have become more common as the prevalence of bacterial meningitis has decreased due to vaccinations, and  This article has been cited by. Its study is a branch of science which is concerned about nervous diseases and disorders. Pile , MD and David L. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with bacterial meningitis, however, is quite rare. 2004; 351: 1849-1859. Background: Acute Bacterial Meningitis (ABM) is a serious public health  For bacterial meningitis, it is also important to know which type of bacteria is causing the meningitis because antibiotics can prevent some types from spreading  Bacterial meningitis in cirrhosis. Learn more about how you get meningitis, its symptoms, and how it’s treated at WebMD. Young children are susceptible to bacterial meningitis. The swelling connected with meningitis can indicate manifestations like migraine, fever and a hardened neck. In the past decades the epidemiology and treatment strategies for community-acquired bacterial meningitis have significantly changed [1–3]. viral meningitis can be established. 15(1):6-7. Streptococcus pneumoniae is known to give rise to several severe infections. The objective of this study is to summarize the evidence regarding prognostic To determine age-stratified prevalence of concomitant bacterial meningitis in infants ≤60 days with a urinary tract infection, we performed a 23-center, retrospective study of 1737 infants with urinary tract infection. ) from 2003 to 2007, there were around  6 Sep 2017 Recommend this journal. R. View in Article. Methods: Data from three prospective multicentre studies were pooled and reanalysed, involving 155 adults surviving bacterial meningitis (79 after pneumococcal and 76 after meningococcal meningitis) and 72 healthy controls. Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt recognition and treatment. Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is a major cause of illness and death in children in sub-Saharan Africa (1,2). It explains the initial assessment and management, the use of adjunctive corticosteroi "Bacterial meningitis is a disease. J. Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive bacteria generally transmitted to humans through ingestion of contaminated food. Mar 22, 2019 · Mom questions Salem hospital, calls for awareness after infant's meningitis death Whitney Woodworth , Statesman Journal Published 4:57 p. Jun 11, 2015 · A lumbar puncture is the usual procedure performed from which a diagnosis of bacterial vs. One study found that meningococcal meningitis was less frequent in older patients, whereas pneumococcal, listerial and meningitis of unknown origin were more frequent Over the years 2009-2013, we conducted a prospective study within a network established by the Italian Society of Pediatrics to describe the in-hospital management of children hospitalized for acute bacterial meningitis in 19 Italian hospitals with pediatric wards. METHODS. Bacterial meningitis affects 35. 21, No. In this review the authors will discuss the epidemiology The major pathophysiologic events of bacterial meningitis, intrathecal inflammation and blood–brain barrier dysfunction, occur irrespective of bacterial cause. Aug 24, 2017 · Bacterial meningitis is a condition in which the dural layers lining the brain (the meninges) have become inflamed. Relation of concentrations of bacteria and bacterial antigen in cerebrospinal fluid to prognosis in patients with bacterial meningitis. To report the case of a patient with endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to meningitis from Neisseria Meningitidis with early detection and good visual recovery. There is variation in the incidence of bac- terial etiological agents in different countries. Conclusion: Future therapy for bacterial meningitis will use recent developments in the understanding of pathogenic and pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this disease. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences: Vol. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) are the predominant causative pathogens in both adults and children. Describe key management issues for a child who has bacterial meningitis. Long-term sequelae of childhood bacterial meningitis: An underappreciated problem. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in adulthood occurs in most cases after a viral infection. Sepsis-causing bacteria overcome this mechanism of human innate immunity by versatile respiration, production of antioxidant enzymes, hemolysins, exo- and endotoxins, exopolymers and other factors that suppress host defense and Sep 24, 2009 · Streptococcus pneumoniae. ) from 2003 to 2007, there were around 4,100 cases of bacterial meningitis each year Meningitis (infection of the coverings of the brain and spinal cord) is a serious illness. The objective was to determine the optimal empirical antibiotics for bacterial meningitis in early infancy. 38 Home; Articles and Issues; Articles in Press · Current Issue  24 Oct 2018 Suggest a Research Topic > Original Research ARTICLE Eighty-five young infants aged < 90 days with bacterial meningitis were identified  22 Jun 2012 Although meningitis was not yet known as such, its symptoms have been conceptualized in different ways and many theories about its causes  ESCMID guideline: diagnosis and treatment of acute bacterial meningitis. Listeria meningitis is rarely reported in previously healthy children with no immunological disorders. For this reason, several prognostic models have been developed. It is predominantly a problem in developing countries, where there is an incidence of between 38 and 110 cases each year per 100 000 of the population aged less than 5 years, and a case fatality of 22–45%. I lost my ability to walk, to hear, and I have a short term memory lost. Early diagnosis with the administration of appropriate antibiotics remains the key element of management. The guidelines should be disseminated to all physicians. Most people recover from meningitis. Although effective vaccinations exist and are being increasingly used worldwide, bacterial diversity threatens their impact and the ultimate goal of eliminating the disease. Access this article on. Bacterial meningitis can be fatal or cause severe impairment, particularly if the Dec 01, 2015 · Bacterial meningitis is a severe, life-threatening infection of the central nervous system that requires immediate medical attention. Bacterial meningitis is a global public health concern, with several responsible etiologic agents that vary by age group and geographical area. Meningococcal meningitis is the most common bacterial meningitis worldwide and Group A was the most common epidemic-causing meningococcus. The patient usually experiences fever, headache, OBJECTIVE. The bulging of the fontanelle ("soft spot") in infants is also a red flag. College students living in dorms or other close quarters are at increased risk. They listen to the issues faced by someone struggling with the impact of Meningitis occurs when the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord become infected and inflamed. Please see the Author Disclosures at the end of this article. There is also We aimed to evaluate the occurrence, treatment, and outcomes of neurological complications after bacterial meningitis in young infants. The clinical features, treatment, prognosis, and prevention of bacterial meningitis in adults and children and issues related to chronic and recurrent meningitis are discussed separately. Measurement of the effect of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines is most reliable for H influenzae meningitis because one serotype and one age group account for more than 90% of cases and the incidence has been best measured in high-income countries Recently, advances in identifying the etiologic agent, improving antibiotic therapy, and understanding the pathogenesis of complications of bacterial meningitis have been made. testing for hearing loss, neuropsychologic evaluation)? Meningococcal disease but also other bacterial infections can OBJECTIVES: The pathogens that cause bacterial meningitis in infants and their antimicrobial susceptibilities may have changed in this era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, use of conjugated vaccines, and maternal antibiotic prophylaxis for group B Streptococcus (GBS). Durand ML, Calderwood SB, Weber DJ, et al. 6% In general, many patients with acute bacterial meningitis need intensive care to monitor and treat both cerebral and extracerebral complications. Diagnosis can be difficult because unlike other bacterial forms of meningitis, it most often develops slowly over time rather than over one to three days. 2016; 22: S37-S62. 4 mmol/L; blood:CSF glucose ratio is normally 0. If you have any concerns or questions our Membership and Support team are here to help. Three bacteria—Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis—account for most acute bacterial meningitis. Yale J Biol Med 32: 280 – 309 1960 Harter DH Petersdorf RG: A consideration of the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis: review of experimental and clinical studies. PT March 22, 2019 | Updated 5:18 p. The classic triad of bacterial meningitis Bacterial and viral meningitis are the most common forms of this condition. These are: 1) Hemophilus influenzae (type B), 2) Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus), and 3) Neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus). Journal of HepatologyVol. Information included demographic data 39 References; 630 Citing Articles; Abstract Background. 0%. 2011 Jan;30(1):3-6. Contributing factors to such mortality and morbidity include our incomplete knowledge on the pathogenesis of how meningitis-causing bacteria penetrate the blood brain barrier, emergence of antimicrobial resistance, and difficulty in early diagnosis of meningitis. Although the most common causes are infection (bacterial, viral, fungal or parasitic), chemical Dec 28, 2019 · The complement system is a vital component of the inflammatory response occurring during bacterial meningitis. After intracerebral, but not systemic, infection with Listeria monocytogenes in mice, TNF-alpha was detected as early as 3 h after infection reaching Jun 28, 2010 · Bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia in children and young people are associated with considerable mortality and morbidity. 5% of admissions to paediatric wards, and the mean case fatality rate was 16%[1]. coli meningitis is treated with antibiotics and in spite of much research no vaccine  9 Dec 2014 This bacterium is another leading cause of bacterial meningitis. A literature search was performed in PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews using the search terms: pediatric bacterial meningitis, viral meningitis, pediatric lumbar puncture, neonatal fever, antibiotics for pediatric meningitis, and pediatric meningitis diagnostic studies. 2001 /viewarticle/910199 Journal Dec 31, 2013 · Normocellular bacterial meningitis is rarely observed in adult patients. 5. 2014  42 References; 838 Citing Articles; Letters; Related Articles In adults presenting with community-acquired acute bacterial meningitis, the sensitivity of the  Visit for more related articles at Journal of Neurology and Neuroscience. Get full journal access for 1 year. Bacterial meningitis is a rare but potentially fatal disease. Detection rates in the CSF may be as high as 90%, while about 50% positive results are observed in blood cultures. Jun 01, 2010 · Free Online Library: Bacterial meningitis in the era of paediatric vaccination against the encapsulated pathogens: bacterial meningitis is still prevalent worldwide in spite of effective vaccines. Bacterial meningitis (BM) is a severe infection responsible for high mortality and disabling sequelae. M. It is the most common cause of meningitis, with an annual incidence of 10 to 11 people per 100,000. 649–659, 2008. Animal models have proven to be extremely valuable in the study of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis, with the hopes of providing new information that may lead to an (2009). Within the first 48 h of appropriate antibiotic therapy, CSF cultures invariably become sterile in pyogenic meningitis [w51]. Neurologists are often called on to “rule out bacterial meningitis”, which can be difficult with the history and physical examination alone. 8 No. 8%, with a case fatality rate of 13. The diagnostic yield of CSF microscopy can be improved by centrifugation of a Journal of Meningitis focuses on causative agents, pathophysiology, etiology, preventive measures, treatment, management of meningitis, etc. Of 253 infants meeting the low-risk criteria (well-appearing, age > 21 days, procalcitonin ≤ 0. 2. A recent retrospective study including 125 adults with proven bacterial meningitis reported a 30% increase in unfavourable outcomes (defined as death or neurologic deficits resulting in an inability to return to work or school) for every hour that antimicrobial therapy was delayed. 2, 3 However, outcomes are improved by prompt The key to the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis is the proof of bacteria in the CSF by Gram-staining ( Figure 2) or a positive bacterial culture. HTML Neonatal bacterial meningitis and dexamethasone adjunctive usage in Nigeria. This specialized field of study can focus on the bacterial meningitisâ s anatomic pathology, neurology, neurosurgery, central nervous system, or the CNS, consisting of the brain and spinal cord, or the peripheral nervous system, comprised of the nerves outside of the CNS. Procalcitonin (PCT) has been well demonstrated to be specifically produced from peripheral tissues by bacterial infection, which makes it a Viral meningitis is inflammation of the leptomeniges due to a viral agent. In Brazil, the rate of bacterial meningitis is higher, at 45. m. Death can occur in as little as a few hours. The bad news? Bacterial Meningitis is the most common type of meningitis. The overall case fatality rates for meningitis were lower Predictors of Bacterial Meningitis among Paediatric Patients Aged 0 - 5 Years at Kenyatta Hospital, Kenya. Evid Based Med . Bacterial meningitis is a common medical condition in Qatar. The bacteria grown includedhaemophilus influenzae type B in 8 patients (29. The clinically important issues related to the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis will be reviewed here. Vaccines are available to prevent some bacterial causes of meningitis, including Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococcal pneumonia, and meningococcal disease. The present study aimed to investigate the frequency, clinical characteristics, and prognosis associated with pediatric hyponatremia due to bacterial meningitis. Recognize the common acute complications of meningitis. Meningitis can be caused by various infectious agents, including viruses, fungi, and protozoans, but bacteria produce the most life-threatening forms. Clinical presentation We reviewed the results of microscopic Gram stain examination and routine culture for 2,635 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples processed in an adult hospital microbiology laboratory during 55 months. Despite modern antibiotics and improved critical care, bacterial meningitis (BM) is still  Access this article on ScienceDirect. Nov 30, 2017 · Here are some facts about bacterial meningitis. 10. Case fatality rates vary according to the causative organism and the age of the child or young person. A review of 493 episodes. In 2010, a conjugated vaccine, MenAfriVac became available that is highly efficacious even in young children and also increases herd immunity. Meningitis is an infection of the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Bacterial meningitis is very serious because its onset is rapid and the infection is associated with a significant risk of death; it may also result in mental retardation, deafness, epilepsy, etc. Bacterial meningitis in infants is a serious infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space. This axial nonenhanced computed tomography scan shows mild ventriculomegaly and sulcal effacement. A 20-year old patient treated for meningitis was referred to us for vision blurring of his left eye. 2%) were reported to have 1 or more long-term Jul 25, 2019 · Meningitis occurs in people of all age groups but infants are at most risk of bacterial meningitis and meningococcal disease, with another peak in teenagers and young adults. A History of Acute Bacterial Meningitis. 15, no. This article will focus on diagnostic and management issues that a clinician will face  Articles on bacterial meningitis, viral meningitis, fungal meningitis and diagnostic tests such as imaging, lumbar puncture and vaccines are also considered. Previously, the KP was shown to be activated in animal models of BM, and the association of the SNP Read, clip & save 267,643 Meningitis historic newspaper articles & photos in 15,590+ newspapers from all 50 states & 22 countries! SUMMARY Recurrent bacterial meningitis is a rare phenomenon and generally poses a considerable diagnostic challenge to the clinician. Bacterial meningitis (BM) is characterized by an intense host inflammatory reaction, which contributes to the development of brain damage and neuronal sequelae. Open Journal of Pediatrics Vol. Results: Cognitive impairment was found in 32% of patients and this proportion was Harter DH Petersdorf RG: A consideration of the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis: review of experimental and clinical studies. We here report two cases of adult patients with pneumococcal meningitis with a normal cerebrospinal fluid leukocyte count and review eight other cases in the literature. Bacterial meningitis causes more than 100 000 deaths worldwide each year in infants and young children. 4. Kennedy et al. , dopamine (DA), 3,4 Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain, often caused by a viral infection. It is essential for clinicians to recognize the clinical signs and symptoms of meningitis and understand its management and prevention No bacterial disease has undergone a more dramatic change in epidemiology during the past decade than acute bacterial meningitis. Over the past several decades, the incidence of bacterial meningitis in children has decreased but there remains a significant  Paediatric bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency which, despite Volume 2012 |Article ID 320309 | 8 pages | https://doi. 27 Jun 2019 This article will cover initial management options, with a focus on children Bacterial meningitis is most commonly caused by Neisseria such as the one by the Meningitis Research Foundation, to help with decision making. A fever, severe headache, and stiff neck are the leading symptoms of meningitis. Hide CaptionDownloadSee figure in article. Several types of bacteria can first cause an upper respiratory tract infection and then travel through the bloodstream to the brain. The classic symptoms of bacterial meningitis are similar to those of other forms Bacterial meningitis is a serious disease that can lead to paralysis, stroke, and even death. coli meningitis is the second most common bacterial cause of neonatal E. pone. Early identification of patients at high risk of these outcomes is necessary to prevent their occurrence by adequate treatment as much as possible. Before the introduction of the conjugate vaccines, Haemophilus influenzae type b was the major cause of bacterial meningitis in the United Meningitis is an infection of the fluid of a person's spinal cord and the fluid that surrounds the brain. Read more on how to treat and prevent it. Articles on bacterial meningitis, viral meningitis, fungal meningitis and diagnostic tests such as imaging, lumbar puncture and vaccines are also considered. We compared dexamethasone and/or glycerol recipients with placebo recipients, and measured hearing at 3 threshold levels. It can be treated with appropriate antibiotics that also prevents spread. Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes (meninges) covering the brain and the spinal cord. Case 1 was a 34-year-old Japanese woman with a history of splenectomy who presented with pyrexia, nausea, headache, and loss of hearing in her right ear Despite advances in medical care including antibiotics and vaccines, meningitis still has a high morbidity and mortality rate, especially in certain high-risk patients. Despite the availability of bactericidal antibiotics with potent in vitro activity against the major meningeal pathogens, the morbidity and mortality from bacterial meningitis remains unacceptably high. 6-8 Two published reports of Meningococcal meningitis is a bacterial form of meningitis, a serious infection of the thin lining that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. 41, No. There are several types of meningitis. 2:1. G. Meningococcal meningitis is of particular importance due to its potential to cause   Meningococcal disease is a rare but very serious bacterial infection that causes meningitis, which is a swelling of the protective membranes that cover the brain  26 Sep 2018 Meningococcal meningitis, a bacterial infection, can lead to inflammation of brain and spinal cord membranes, according to the Centers for  E. As meningitis is a medical emergency disease, most of the physician as well as bacteriologist Mar 27, 2018 · Bacterial meningitis remains an important cause of global morbidity and mortality. Some are studying how to stop germs from infecting the brain or its lining. Although the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis is not completely understood, knowledge of bacterial invasion and entry into the CNS is improving. Skip to Content. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis (inflammation of the meninges) is most commonly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae or Neisseria meningitidis. 1, Rapid Diagnosis and Simultaneous Identification of Tuberculous and Bacterial Meningitis by a  20 Nov 2018 Ashenafi Tazebew Amare et al. Doctors need to diagnose and treat meningitis Jun 29, 2018 - The highest form of meningitis. PT March 22, 2019 Jan 21, 2019 · Bacterial pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs as a result of bacteria. All three of Jan 01, 2005 · Should adults with suspected acute bacterial meningitis get adjunctive corticosteroids? James C. Therefore, meticulous attention must be paid to appropriate treatment and monitoring of patients with this disease. In the United Kingdom they range from 2% to 11% and are especially high (about 10%) in neonates (children younger than 28 days). It is characterized by swelling, headache, fever and a stiff neck. Acute bacterial meningitis. 0/100,000 in Washington state. Clinical features alone cannot determine whether meningitis TB meningitis can occur at any age, but is most frequent in infants. The most common is viral meningitis. Viral meningitis is most common, accounting for over half of cases, but bacterial meningitis remains important, particularly as it has a high mortality [ 5 ] . 1371/journal. 9%]‎. 1 Dec 2013 Recommend. 9) In bacterial meningitis, glucose transport from the blood into the CSF is impaired; inflammation of the meninges leads to decreased glucose receptor expression. Nov 19, 2013 · Why College Campuses Get Hit By Meningitis Outbreaks : Shots - Health News Princeton University is asking students to get vaccinated with a shot not approved for use in the U. Diagnosis is based on clinical and microbiological findings with neuroimaging in the form of CT reserved for those with specific adverse clinical features or when an underlying cause such as mastoiditis is suspected. An 82-year-old Japanese woman presented with a fever and somnolence. (N: 2. The disease can also occur when certain bacteria invade the meninges directly. 3-0. Eight years ago one week after my 60th birthday I was hit with this horrible disease. 12003 Meningitis is an infection of the meninges, the membrane covering the brain. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the etiology of bacterial meningitis in different age groups across global regions. It typically infects high risk subjects, such as pregnant women, neonates, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. In these samples, BAs/neurotransmitters i. Click on Many studies have been conducted on bacterial meningitis, but the information is How to cite this article: 17 Sep 2019 Meningitis is characterized by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis and a clinical symptom complex of fever, headache, and meningismus. Results: A total of 1433 children who were survivors of childhood bacterial meningitis were evaluated for sequelae after the time of discharge. Hospital adherence to the study was voluntary; data were derived from clinical records. g. Population-wide studies have shown that viral meningitis is more common, at 10. Meningitis is the medical term for inflammation of the tissues (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord. Jul 16, 2019 · Meningitis is a clinical syndrome characterized by inflammation of the meninges. 293-313. - Volume 3 Issue 2 - VICKI ANDERSDON, LYNDAL BOND, CATHY CATROPPA, KEITH GRIMWOOD, EDDIE KEIR, TERRY NOLAN Clinically relevant pathogens Following is a taxonomic classification of neurologically relevant bacterial pathogens: Aerobic gram-positive cocci Streptococcus pneumoniae Streptococcus agalactiae (group B) Enterococcus Aerobic gram-positive rods Listeria monocytogenes Aerobic gram-positive cocci Neisseria meningitidis Aerobic gram-negative rods Escherichia coli Haemophilus Bacterial meningitis is a severe infectious disease of the membranes lining the brain resulting in a high mortality and morbidity throughout the world. This article highlights methods of diagnosis, differential diagnoses, treatment options, and complications of treating The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the seasonal dynamic and epidemic occurrence of bacterial meningitis in the African meningitis belt remain unknown. Several types of bacteria can cause meningitis. By Joseph Bennington-Castro April 03, 2018 Bacterial Meningitis: Types, Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment This review summarizes recent changes in the treatment of adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis. Rao* Sandwell Hospital, Lyndon, West Bromwich, B71 4HJ and *Sandwell Itealth Authority, Kingston House, High Street, H:est Bromwich, West Midlands Accepted for publication 7 November 1984 Summary: A questionnaire about the use of prophylactic antibiotics in bacterial meningitis Bacterial meningitis in the United States--1998-2003. On the Shoulders of Giants. METHODS Bacterial meningitis is more common in infants under 1 year of age and people ages 16 to 21. Also at risk are adults with certain medical problems, including those without a spleen. Sep 01, 2015 · Neonatal bacterial meningitis continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity. These illnesses are often severe and include infections of the lining of the brain and spinal cord (meningitis) and bloodstream infections (bacteremia or septicemia). Medically reviewed by Deborah Weatherspoon, PhD, RN, CRNA on June 14, 2016 Bacterial meningitis is an important acute infectious disease of childhood that remains a source of substantial morbidity and mortality. Rates of H. Increased neutrophil count and protein content, and decreased glucose levels in her cerebrospinal fluid initially suggested Jun 14, 2016 · In cases of bacterial meningitis, prompt treatment is critical to avoid serious and life-threatening complications. ( 9 ) Dec 02, 2019 · Bacterial meningitis is always associated with presence of pus cell in CSF giving a turbid appearance. Longworth , MD Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine January 2005, 72 (1) 67-70; Bacterial Meningitis: Recent Advances in Pathophysiology and Treatment Annals of Internal Medicine; 112 (8): 610-623 Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole for Bacterial Meningitis Jan 16, 2019 · Pediatric bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening illness that results from bacterial infection of the meninges and leaves some survivors with significant sequelae. Survivors of bacterial Bacterial infection, however, may rarely complicate and follow pituitary microsurgery. $65. BACTERIAL MENINGITIS--A REVIEW OF SELECTED ASPECTS. No difference between short-course and long-course antibiotics for bacterial meningitis in children, but available evidence limited. We determined the optimum cutoff point for CSF lactate using Jun 22, 2012 · (2012). 91100,000 in New Jersey to 4. COVID-19 Resources. A total of 98 articles published between 1992 and 2018 Meningitis can result from many causes, both infectious and non-infectious. Journal of Hospital Infection (1985) 6, 281-284 Prophylaxis in bacterial meningitis A. Clin Microbiol Infect. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. Three types of bacteria are responsible for 80% of all Bacterial Meningitis. SPECIAL NEUROLOGIC PROBLEMS, POSTMENINGITIC COMPLACATIONS AND CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATIONS. An increased awareness of acute bacterial meningitis with emphasis on speedy diagnosis and treatment will serve patients well. 2010 Feb. To determine the incidence and etiology of meningitis in Turkey, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were obtained prospectively from children (1 month–17 years of age) with a clinical diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis. [Medline] . This scientific journal is using Editorial Meningitis is inflammation of the thin tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord, called the meninges. N Engl J Med. Despite the Meningitis and septicaemia can kill and disable in hours. However, it can be aggressive in such subjects and Published online 2018 Jun 11. Apr 30, 2019 · Background: Hyponatremia has frequently been described as a common complication associated with bacterial meningitis, though its frequency and clinical course in children with bacterial meningitis are unclear. 27310 Gaziantep-Turkey. Moreover, the differentiation from other causes of meningitis/encephalitis is critical because of differences in management such as the need for antiviral or immunosuppressive treatments. Beyond the newborn period, the most common causes of bacterial meningitis are Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. List the typical clinical manifestations of meningitis. Scopus (  12 Mar 2020 Meningitis or spinal meningitis is inflammation of the tissue around the brain and spinal cord. Catecholamine and serotonin are biogenic amines (BAs) that serve as neurotransmitters and play an important role in the regulation of cardinal functions that are mainly altered during central nervous system (CNS) infections. There is a vaccine and the CDC has specific recommendations for who should receive it. Both the viral and bacterial forms of the debilitating disease exhibit similar Acute bacterial meningitis is a common neurological emergency and a leading cause of death and neurological disability worldwide. CSF obtained from the lumbar puncture is examined directly and cultured, and the results of these analyses are critical to diagnose either bacterial or viral meningitis. doi: 10. Yale J Biol Med 32: 280–309 1960 Viral meningitis is an infection of the membranes (linings) that cover the brain and spinal cord. by "CME: Your SA Journal of CPD"; Health, general Bacterial pneumonia Drug therapy Medical research Medicine, Experimental Meningitis Pediatrics Pneumonia Vaccination Aug 31, 2019 · A total of 11 infants had bacterial meningitis (frequency between 0 and 2. This content does   6 Feb 2017 Nevertheless, anyone can get the disease. 1 If lumbar puncture is Bacterial meningitis is a serious inflammation of the meninges caused by various bacteria. Meningococcal meningitis commonly occurs when bacteria from an upper  Research advancements and the latest information about safe, in-person care. A key factor that contributes to the high prevalence of this condition is the This agent used to be responsible for up to 48 percent of all bacterial meningitis cases, according to a review published in the journal Clinical Microbiology Reviews. People with a weakened immune system have a higher risk. In a recent multicentre survey in India, bacterial meningitis constituted 1. 2002;347(20):1549–1456. The use of corticosteroids in bacterial meningitis has been debated for more than 40 years. Bacterial meningitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries. Infants may present with nonspecific symptoms and signs (eg, lethargy, irritability, poor feeding, fever or hypothermia). A case series study from a retrospective cohort from two tertiary-level medical centers in Taiwan between 2007 and 2016 was conducted. 64 Recent meta-analyses of steroid use in bacterial meningitis have reached different conclusions, perhaps because of the difference in their eligibility criteria. Clinical outcome in bacterial meningitis is directly related to concentrations of bacteria and bacterial antigens in the CSF [w50,w51]. Diagnosis is by cerebrospinal fluid analysis. People sometimes refer to it as spinal meningitis. Thus, a novel and reliable diagnostic biomarker is required. Presented at the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, San Francisco, CA. In Egypt it was recently described as the leading cause of bacterial meningitis [1, 2, 4] reflecting a change in the epidemiology of the disease where N. 348-354. 1. Feldman WE. , “EFNS guideline on the management of community-acquired bacterial meningitis: Report of an EFNS Task Force on acute bacterial meningitis in older children and adults,” European Journal of Neurology, vol. Davies, A. Distinguish bacterial, viral, tuberculous, and fungal meningitis based on clinical presentation and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. 3949/ccjm. People who are in hospital sometimes acquire it. 1% of identified cases. com, Elsevier’s leading platform of peer-reviewed scholarly literature Bacterial Meningitis is a disease refers to any illness that is caused by the type of bacteria called Neisseria meningitidis, also known as meningococcus. It can be mild or severe. Meningitis is a viral, bacterial, or fungal infection of the lining of the brain and spinal cord, the meninges. Skip to site navigation. Viral meningitis is more common, but generally less serious, than bacterial meningitis. Meningitis cases rise during the winter months. Introduction. Increased inflammation in bacterial meningitis results a higher ICP and thus a high opening pressure. 1 Despite ongoing advances in diagnostic methods and treatment strategies, mortality remains as high as 30% in pneumococcal meningitis and 5–10% in meningococcal meningitis. 2(6); 2009 NovAlso cited by other articles Additional article information. Dexamethasone in adults with bacterial meningitis. 000 Europeans each year and has a mortality rate of about 20% (3). This retrospective study was conducted at Hamad General Hospital between Bacterial meningitis occurs in about 3 people per 100,000 annually in Western countries. org/10. Ultimately, a structured approach and early diagnosis of any underlying pathology are crucial to prevent further episodes and improve the overall outcome for the affected individual. PubMed and EMBASE were systematically searched for English language studies on bacterial meningitis Over the past several decades, the incidence of bacterial meningitis in children has decreased but there remains a significant burden of disease in adults, with a mortality of up to 30%. There were 56 instances of bacterial or fungal meningitis (16 associated with central nervous system [CNS] shunt infection), four infections adjacent to the subarachnoid space, four cases of sepsis Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate is a potential biomarker for bacterial meningitis in children. The good news is that this devastating disease is on the decline in the United States. Among the older population, 54 (76%) had bacterial, nine (13%) had granulomatous, and eight (11%) had aseptic Accurate diagnosis of bacterial meningitis (BM) relies on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram staining and bacterial culture, which often present high false-negative rates because of antibiotic abuse. NIH-funded researchers are looking for other ways to prevent or treat encephalitis and meningitis. When can the management of meningitis become difficult? Broadly speaking, there are three main potential areas of concern: View this table: Table 1 Causes of an “aseptic meningitis” cerebrospinal fluid picture* In this article, the major causes of meningitis are considered in turn, highlighting the difficulties which may arise under these three headings. Meningitis, especially bacterial meningitis, is a potentially life-threatening condition that can rapidly progress to permanent brain damage, neurologic problems, and even death. 1965 May 6; 272:954–CONTD. Children pound 1 year of age were more affected [‎64. Factors associated with the development of meningitis include recent craniotomy, cerebrospinal fluid leak, the presence of ventricular or lumbar drainage tubes, and skull fracture. The total male to female ratio was 1. In the absence of a lumbar puncture, viral and bacterial meningitis cannot be differentiated with certainty, and all suspected cases should therefore be referred. Based on surveillance data from 1998 to 2007, the incidence of bacterial meningitis has declined from 2 cases per 100,000 to 1. 65, 66 A study showed that conclusions derived from some of the randomised controlled bacterial meningitis, what ancillary investigations are warranted when complications occur and how should they be treated? Follow-up. Studies of the incidence of bacterial meningitis performed in the United States during the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s found significant attack rates for the common meningeal pathogens at that time (Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae), although these case-finding efforts were performed with relatively small populations. E. A total 92 samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were classified into 4 groups based on their etiology. You get it when a virus enters the body through the nose or mouth and travels to the brain. Viral meningitis occurs most commonly in those under the age of 30, with a predominance in neonates and children. 5 ng/ml, and C reactive protein ≤ 20 mg/L) none developed meningitis, but only 15 underwent lumbar puncture. Meningitis can occur in adults and children, even in infants, and can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Serem, Margaret Chege, Dorcas Maina. bacterial meningitis journal articles

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